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Public transport is usually cheap and efficient and is probably the best way to visit Italian cities, since parking, petrol and motorway tolls are quite expensive in Italy.
Generally speaking, it is usually more expensive to buy a single ticket, so it is worth your while finding out about the cost of weekly or monthly tickets for transport in your town.
Be aware that bus tickets are not sold on board and need to be purchased beforehand, usually at tobacconist's and newsstands.
All tickets must be stamped before boarding trains and underground trains or on board buses.
All the major cities have extensive bus and tram networks but these can inevitably be slow during peak traffic hours when the towns become very congested.
Rome, Naples and Milan have an underground network known as the Metropolitana. Rome has two lines and Milan has three lines. Naples has it also has funiculars and a commuter line.
The Metropolitana and the three Funicolari are a much faster form of travel especially at the busy times of the day.
Are widespread, especially in the large cities, and can be recognised by the neon sign on top.
Taxis are usually white or yellow. Fares are quite high and there are additional charges for luggage, pets, at night-time, and on public holidays.
Official taxis have taximeters which display the fare to be paid and will issue a receipt if required.
Tipping is not necessary but most people round up a euro or two.
Very few taxis accept credit cards in Italy.
Be aware of unofficial taxis that are often parked near airports and train stations.
Most Italian cities and towns have very intense traffic during working hours and bicycle lanes are practically non existent but buying a bicycle (new or second hand) is an option worth considering in smaller towns.
Italians do not cycle a lot in the large towns but cycling is nevertheless a major Italian sport and you will see many cyclists out on the roads enjoying the countryside at the weekends.